Zero-Knowledge in EasyCrypt (CSF 2023)
Denis Firsov, Dominique Unruh
[ eprint ]

We formalize security properties of zero-knowledge protocols and their proofs in EasyCrypt. Specifically, we focus on sigma protocols (three-round protocols). Most importantly, we also cover properties whose security proofs require the use of rewinding; prior work has focused on properties that do not need this more advanced technique. On our way we give generic definitions of the main properties associated with sigma protocols, both in the computational and information-theoretical setting. We give generic derivations of soundness, (malicious- verifier) zero-knowledge, and proof of knowledge from simpler assumptions with proofs which rely on rewinding. Also, we address sequential composition of sigma protocols. Finally, we illustrate the applicability of our results on three zero-knowledge protocols: Fiat-Shamir (for quadratic residues), Schnorr (for discrete logarithms), and Blum (for Hamiltonian cycles, NP- complete).